Hanley Professor of Biological Sciences
I graduated from the University of London (B.Sc. (General), 1950; B.Sc. (Special), 1951; M.Sc., 1953) and the University of Glasgow (Ph.D., 1956), after which I was a postdoctoral fellow with Prof. William Lipscomb at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis (1956-1958) and a Research Associate with Prof. Max Perutz at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, England (1958-1964). Currently I am the Hanley Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences at Purdue University, where I have worked for the last 52 years. I am a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, a foreign member of the British Royal Society, and a 2000-2006 member of the National Science Board, the oversight body for the National Science Foundation. I have received numerous international honors and have honorary degrees from universities in Canada, France, Sweden, England and Belgium. My laboratory utilizes X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy to study the biological structure of various animal and bacterial viruses at atomic resolution to determine how these molecular assemblages recognize specific hosts, tissues, or cells; how they enter the cell and disassemble; and how newly synthesized viral components assemble and mature to form progeny viruses. I have studied single-stranded RNA rhino- (common cold), coxsackie-, polio-, and cardioviruses as well as the enveloped toga- and flaviviruses; single-stranded DNA human, canine, feline, and porcine parvoviruses and the bacterial fX174 virus; and the double-stranded DNA tailed f29 and T4 bacteriophages.